Learn numbers in Proto-Indo-European
Knowing numbers in Proto-Indo-European is probably one of the most useful things you can learn to say, write and understand in Proto-Indo-European. Learning to count in Proto-Indo-European may appeal to you just as a simple curiosity or be something you really need. Perhaps you have planned a trip to a country where Proto-Indo-European is the most widely spoken language, and you want to be able to shop and even bargain with a good knowledge of numbers in Proto-Indo-European.
It's also useful for guiding you through street numbers. You'll be able to better understand the directions to places and everything expressed in numbers, such as the times when public transportation leaves. Can you think of more reasons to learn numbers in Proto-Indo-European?
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family, spoken between 3.500 and 2.500 BC. By linguistic reconstruction, linguists have reconstructed a language for which no direct record exists. The reconstructed numerals presented on this page are taken from the Late Indo-European stage, when the distinction with its parent, the Proto-Indo Hittite (PIE) has been done.Due to lack of data, we can only count accurately up to 1,000 in Proto-Indo-European. Please contact me if you can help me counting up from that limit.
List of numbers in Proto-Indo-European
Here is a list of numbers in Proto-Indo-European. We have made for you a list with all the numbers in Proto-Indo-European from 1 to 20. We have also included the tens up to the number 100, so that you know how to count up to 100 in Proto-Indo-European. We also close the list by showing you what the number 1000 looks like in Proto-Indo-European.
- 1) oinos
- 2) dwōu
- 3) trejes
- 4) qétwores
- 5) penqe
- 6) seks
- 7) septḿ
- 8) oktṓu
- 9) newṇ
- 10) dekṃ
- 11) sémdekṃ
- 12) dwōu dekṃ
- 13) trejes dekṃ
- 14) qétwores dekṃ
- 15) penqe dekṃ
- 16) sweks dekṃ
- 17) septḿ dekṃ
- 18) oktṓ dekṃ
- 19) newṇ dekṃ
- 20) dwid kṃtī
- 30) trídkṃta
- 40) qetwŕdkṃta
- 50) penqédkṃta
- 60) sé ksdkṃta
- 70) septḿdkṃta
- 80) oktṓdkṃta
- 90) néwṇdkṃta
- 100) dkṃtóm
- 1,000) sṃgheslom
Numbers in Proto-Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European numbering rules
Each culture has specific peculiarities that are expressed in its language and its way of counting. The Proto-Indo-European is no exception. If you want to learn numbers in Proto-Indo-European you will have to learn a series of rules that we will explain below. If you apply these rules you will soon find that you will be able to count in Proto-Indo-European with ease.
The way numbers are formed in Proto-Indo-European is easy to understand if you follow the rules explained here. Surprise everyone by counting in Proto-Indo-European. Also, learning how to number in Proto-Indo-European yourself from these simple rules is very beneficial for your brain, as it forces it to work and stay in shape. Working with numbers and a foreign language like Proto-Indo-European at the same time is one of the best ways to train our little gray cells, so let's see what rules you need to apply to number in Proto-Indo-European
Digits from one to nine are rendered by specific words: oinos/oinā/oinom (m/f/n) , dwōu/dwāi/dwoi (m/f/n) , trejes/trja or trī/trísores (m/f/n) , qétwores , penqe , seks , septḿ , oktṓu , and newṇ . It seems that weks, six, could have been the ‘original’ PIH (Proto-Indo Hittite) form, to which an s- from septḿ was added; it would have lost the w- later.
The tens are formed starting with the multiplier unit, directly followed by the suffix -dkṃta (group of ten), with no space, except for twenty: dekṃ , dwid kṃtī or wid kṃtī , trídkṃta , qetwŕdkṃta , penqédkṃta , swé ksdkṃta or sé ksdkṃta, septḿdkṃta , oktṓdkṃta , and néwṇdkṃta .
Compound numbers from eleven to nineteen are formed starting with the unit, then the word for ten (dekṃ), separated with a space: sémdekṃ or oinos dekṃ , dwōu dekṃ , trejes dekṃ , qétwores dekṃ , penqe dekṃ , sweks dekṃ , septḿ dekṃ , oktṓ dekṃ , and newṇ dekṃ .
Compound numbers above twenty are formed starting with the unit, then the ten separated with a space (e.g.: qétwores tridkṃta , oktṓu penqédkṃta ).
Hundreds are formed starting with the multiplier digit root, directly followed by the plural form of the word for hundred (singular: dkṃtóm or kṃtóm, plural: kṃtos), with no space, except for one hundred: dkṃtóm , dwikṃtos , trikṃtos , qatwṛkṃtos , penqekṃtos , sekskṃtos , septṃkṃtos , oktōkṃtos , and newṇkṃtos .
Compound hundreds start with the unit, then the ten and the hundred, separated with spaces (e.g.: penqe dekṃ dkṃtóm , oinos qetwŕdkṃta septṃkṃtos ).
The word for thousand is sṃgheslom [1,000].
A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, by Carlos Quiles and Fernando López-Menchero, 2011
Numbers in different languages